Absenteeism and youth apathy increased. A dissident movement began to develop and a growing number of Cubans opposed the Castro regime. Castro was losing the battle to create a new generation devoted to anti-Americanism, the party and the revolution. Despite four decades of education and indoctrination the “new socialist man” was nowhere to be found. The loss of this generation represents one of the greatest challenges for the continuity of the revolution.
Hugo Chavez of Venezuela provided petroleum, loans and investments. Yet Cuba has progressed little. Venezuelan aid only helped Cuba muddle through the difficult times.
In 2006, Castro fell ill and relinquished power.
Quick and smooth succession to his brother General Raul Castro followed. Little changed. Repression continued, militarization of the economy increased, Cubans continued to leave the island.
Minor economic adjustments were implemented under Raul but Cuba was not moving toward a market or even a Chinese type economy.
Today, Cuba an ally of Iran, Venezuela, North Korea. Continued Economic Problems. Cubans living in poverty. No freedom or human rights. Cuba remains a military dictatorship.In 2018 Miguel Díaz-Canel was appointed President of the Cuban Council of State and Ministers. Raul Castro remains as Secretary General of the Communist Party and Maximum Leader of the Cuban Government.